Also known as cannabidiol, CBD is one of the numerous compounds found in the hemp plant that is now known to have an array of medicinal benefits. Over the last few years, CBD has become so popular that it is now being extracted, produced and manufactured into a wide range of products, including edibles, CBD oils and even creams.

The most popular form of consumption is CBD oil and it is used to treat a number of illnesses; primarily because of the way it effects the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and doesn’t provide users with a ‘high’ that is illegal in many countries around the world. THC is the cannabinoid best known for providing this ‘high.’ Not only does CBD not get you ‘high,’ but it also helps reduce THC’s psychoactive effects.

What is the CBD Substance?
If you are reading this page, you most probably know what THC is. It (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the most active ingredient in cannabis, and until recently, it was by far the best-known. THC is renowned for the mind-altering high it provides to users. In contrast, CBD is not psychoactive, but it does promote positive changes in the body.

The way CBD effects our body is quite different from the modus operandi of THC in the sense that it is not involved in direct stimulation of the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The major impact of CBD is caused on other receptors such as Serotonin, Adenosine, and Vanilloid.

For instance, the stimulation of the TRPV-1 receptor by CBD creates a variety of processes including body temperature, inflammation, and pain perception.

Moreover, CBD is known to cause an inhibition in the functioning of FAAH enzyme that directly acts on the CB1 receptor and enables THC to produce its psychoactive effect. CBD has established global interest among industry specialists and its discovery has prompted medical experts to take a closer look at the benefits of CBD.

CBD Extraction Methods
Various strains of industrial hemp are an popular way to extract CBD. They are grown around the world legally; including in India, China and several countries in Western Europe. One of the most popular industrial hemp strains is Fedora 17 because it has an extremely low THC content which means that any CBD extracted from it has virtually no psychoactive effects. CBD oil made from hemp is legal in almost every country around the world including in all 50 states in the U.S. because of the negligible THC content.

There are four common extraction methods:
━ The CO2 Cannabis Extraction Method
━ The Olive Oil Extraction Method
━ The Dry Ice Extraction Method
━ The Solvent Extraction Method

In the industrial mass production process, ethanol extraction process is the most common CBD extraction method, thanks to its thanks to its high efficiency and low cost. Filtration is a common step in producing cannabis and hemp concentrates. Centrifugation is the most effective and efficient way of separating the extracts from the solid biomass material. The extraction process can be carried out in an upstream vessel in most cases. The goal of filtration is to improve clarity, increase potency, enhance stability and create overall better consumer experience. Highest possible yield of wanted active ingredients and at the same time lowest possible amount of solids and unwanted substances in the extract are the most common demands for the filtration step.

Customer story:

One decanter one separator have been installed in HMI (www.hmi.top) in 2017 for extracting CBD from hemp.



Skimming milk and whey

Milk skimming process
Raw milk of known fat content, free from air, should be fed to the milk separator at relatively constant temperature and capacity. A change in operating conditions will influence the skimming efficiency. Standardized cream and skimmed milk are the products leaving the separator.
Sediment discharged from the centrifuge during separation may contain bacteria, leucocyte, hair, sand and similar. If the hot milk separator is the first centrifugal clarification step in the dairy, the discharged sediment is not possible to recycle. The best way to dispose it is to sterilize it with steam and dump it.

Whey skimming process
For an efficient separation of fat most of the remaining cheese fines have to be removed before separation. Fines can be taken away by sedimentation in tanks, by filtering or by centrifugal clarification. Whey, free from air and preferably from fines, should be fed to the separator, at relatively constant temperature and capacity. A change in operating conditions will influence the separation efficiency. Whey cream and skimmed whey are the products leaving the separator. Sediment discharged from the centrifuge during separation consists of
residual cheese dust and precipitated whey proteins. The best way to dispose it is to send it back to the farmers.

Separation efficiency
With efficiency for a separator, we normally mean the ability to reduce the fat content in milk. But we can also define the performance in terms of the possibility to produce cream with a consistent and high fat content, or a production with no unintentional stops.
For standardization of milk, fat content in skimmed milk is of less importance because part of the cream is re-mixed to get the proper fat content in the standardized milk. For this reason, you may standardize at a higher capacity than used for skimming.

Product quality
The product quality in a milk separation process is most often measured in terms of free fat and air in the discharged products. The temperature for crystallization and melting of milk fat range from 17-38°C. Therefore, it is important to heat the milk to about 45°C before separation, to be sure not to
damage globules with partly melted fat. Free fat causes two serious faults, sticking and clumping. Rancid flavors may also develop as a result of lipolytic reactions. If the incoming milk contains too much air there will primarily be a problem with cream control and foaming in product tanks. Secondarily, air is the major cause for destruction of fat globule membranes. The membranes may repair themselves again, but the globule is smaller and free fat has occurred. Smaller globules mean more fat in skimmed milk.



Palm oil purifier


The palm oil Purifier is widely used for the purification of palm oil. The oil is fed from the oil tank to the purifier where impurities and water are removed. After purification the oil passes to the vacuum dryer, and is finally pumped to the main storage tank via an oil cooler.

The PASB purifier is a solids ejecting disc stack type centrifuge. The rotating bowl is driven by the electric motor via the flat belt or gear worm. With the feed closed, oil is displaced from the bowl by the addition of displacement water and discharge water is added to release the hydraulic closing force, lowering the sliding bowl bottom. After the discharge cycle, a new water seal is established in the bowl and separation continues. Oil is fed into the purifier by using an external pump. The operating water slide and the complete hydraulic system controlling the sludge discharges are inside the bowl. There is no possibility of contamination from external sources.

The separator bowl is designed for partial discharge of separated sludge, which means that there is a minimal loss of oil. The drive system is of belt drive, or the worm and worm wheel.
The feed system is via external pump system. No operating water tank is required as the purifier requires water at high pressure and this is achieved by an external water pump which operates only during the discharge cycle. Discharging have to be made at regular interval of 15 to 20 minutes and each discharge cycle last for a period of several seconds. The discharge system is fully automated with manual override system.


Operating principle of palm oil purifier

Separation takes place inside a rotating bowl. The teed is introduced to the rotating centrifuge bowl from the top via a stationary inlet pipe, and is accelerated in the
distributor, before entering the disc stack. The separation of liquid-liquld-solids takes place between the discs, with the oil phase moving through the disc stack to the center and is discharged via a stationary centripetal pump. The water and solids separated from the oil moves out to the periphery, the water is led via channels in the top disc to the paring chamber, where it flows out of the centrifuge via holes in the bowl hood. The solids are collected in the periphery of the bowl, from where it is discharged intermittently. The solids discharge is achieved by a hydraulic system which at preset suitable intervals forces the sliding piston to bend down and thus opening the solids ports at the bowl periphery.