A Comprehensive Guide to Decanter Centrifuge

Apr 13,2023

A decanter centrifuge is a centrifuge used to separate suspensions. It separates under the action of centrifugal force. Decanter centrifuges are used for the continuous separation of two or more immiscible liquids or solids of different densities.

It is a very efficient separation process used in many industries such as food processing, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and oil and gas.

This article will describe the different types of decanter centrifuges and how they work. It will also discuss its many uses and maintains.

centrifugal mixer

What is a Decanter Centrifuge?

The basic components of a decanter centrifuge include the bowl, Spiral also known as screw conveyor or vortex conveyor), and drive system.

The bowl is usually cylindrical and has a conical section at one end. The conveying screw is located inside the drum and rotates at a slightly different speed than the drum, causing the solid particles to settle along the inner wall of the drum and be conveyed to the conical section. A screw conveyor then carries the separated solids out of the centrifuge for further processing or disposal, while the liquid overflows and exits through the outlet.

How Do Decanter Centrifuges Actually Work?

The working principle of decanter centrifuge is sedimentation and centrifugal force. A decanter centrifuge uses centrifugal force to separate solids from liquids. This force occurs when a spinning object (in this case, a decanter) pulls the object toward its center. The stronger the force, the greater the separation between the solid and the liquid.

Decanter centrifuges are particularly effective at separating solid particles from liquids with a high solids content such as sludge, slurry, or suspensions. It is known for its high efficiency, continuous operation, and ability to handle large volumes of incoming material.


What is a decanter centrifuge used for?

Decanter centrifuges are used for solid-liquid separation in various industrial applications. It is typically used in processes that require the separation of solid particles from a liquid stream, or where liquid clarification, dehydration, or thickening is required.

Some typical applications for decanter centrifuges include:

Wastewater Treatment: Decanter centrifuges are widely used in sludge dewatering in sewage treatment plants, they can separate solid particles from the liquid part of sewage sludge, producing a dewatered sludge cake for disposal or further processing.

Food and beverage industry: Decanter centrifuges are used in the food and beverage industry for processes such as juice clarification, beer clarification, vegetable oil extraction, and dairy processing. They separate solid impurities from liquids, resulting in improved quality and shelf life of juices, oils, or other food products.

Chemical and pharmaceutical industry: The decanter centrifuge is used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry for the separation of solid-liquid mixtures in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. They can help remove impurities, recover valuable products, and achieve precise separation of components.

Environmental Remediation: Decanter centrifuges are used in environmental remediation processes such as soil and sediment treatment and industrial waste treatment. They can separate solid pollutants from contaminated soil or water, helping to remediate environmental pollution.

Other Applications: Decanters are used in many other applications, such as the pulp and paper industry, textile industry, biotechnology, energy production, etc., where solid-liquid separation is required.


Maintaining Your Decanter Centrifuge

Maintaining your decanter centrifuge is important to ensure its optimum performance, longevity, and safety. Regular maintenance and inspections help prevent breakdowns, reduce downtime, and extend the life of your equipment.

Here are some general tips for maintaining your decanter centrifuge:

Follow Manufacturer’s Recommendations: Always refer to the manufacturer’s Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific instructions on maintaining your decanter centrifuge.

Regular cleaning and inspection: Regularly clean the exterior and interior of the decanter centrifuge to prevent the buildup of debris, sludge, or other contaminants that could affect its performance.

Lubrication: Lubricate bearings, seals, and other moving parts according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Proper lubrication helps reduce friction, wear, and heat to keep your decanter running smoothly.

Check and adjust belt tension: If your decanter is belt-driven, check and adjust the belt tension regularly to ensure proper power transmission and prevent excessive wear.

Monitoring Vibration and Temperature: Periodically monitor the vibration and temperature levels of the decanter centrifuge during operation. Significant changes in vibration or temperature may indicate potential problems with bearings, seals, or other components and should be addressed promptly to prevent further damage or failure.

Inspect and Clean Wear Protection: Decanters often have wear protection, such as replaceable tiles or liners, to protect the bowl and Spiral from wear.

Check Safety Devices: Decanter centrifuges are equipped with various safety devices such as guards, interlocks, and emergency stops.


A decanter centrifuge is a versatile and efficient piece of equipment widely used in Solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid-solid)separation processes in various industries. Whether used for dehydration, concentration, clarification, fractionation, or extraction, decanter centrifuges provide reliable and efficient separation solutions.

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